Mother Courage, a canteen woman, pulls her cart with her three children (Eilif, Kattrin, and Swiss Cheese) in the wake of the army, trading with the soldiers and attempting to make profit from the war.. We are first introduced to a Recruiting Officer and a Sergeant, who complain about the difficulty of recruiting soldiers for the war. Estimates of total military and civilian deaths range from 4.5 to 8 million, mostly from disease or starvation. Finally, German princes were forbidden from establishing alliances amongst themselves or with foreign powers, and amnesty was granted to any ruler who had taken up arms against the emperor after the arrival of the Swedes in 1630. The Peace of Augsburg began to unravel—some converted bishops refused to give up their bishoprics, and certain Habsburg and other Catholic rulers of the Holy Roman Empire and Spain sought to restore the power of Catholicism in the region. The dispute culminated after several battles in the final Battle of White Mountain, where the Protestants suffered a decisive defeat. Many of the imperial territories established in the Peace of Westphalia later became the sovereign nation-states of modern Europe. What were three results of the Thirty Years' War? Danish involvement, referred to as the Low Saxon War, began when Christian IV of Denmark, a Lutheran who also ruled as Duke of Holstein, a duchy within the Holy Roman Empire, helped the Lutheran rulers of neighboring Lower Saxony by leading an army against Ferdinand II’s imperial forces in 1625. In 1618 the Calvinists revolted, famously by first throwing some of Ferdinand's Catholic advisers out a church window in Prague, an event which became known as the Defenestration of Prague. This was a serious blow to Protestant ambitions in the region. On May 23, 1618, an assembly of Protestants seized them and threw them (and also secretary Philip Fabricius) out of the palace window, which was some sixty-nine feet off the ground. The play is set in Europe during the Thirty Years' War. flashcard set{{course.flashcardSetCoun > 1 ? Understand the origins of the Thirty Years’ War. In fact, almost all of the powerful countries in Europe were involved in the war. The treaties did not restore peace throughout Europe, but they did create a basis for national self-determination. Following is a summary … Though it was primarily centered in Germany, several other countries became involved in the conflict, including France, Spain, and Sweden. Through a wide variety of key documents—most of which appear in English for the first time here—this sourcebook reveals the origins, significance, and consequences of the Thirty Years War (1618–1648), the first great, and catastrophic, pan-European conflict. Log in or sign up to add this lesson to a Custom Course. in the Holy Roman Empire. {{courseNav.course.mDynamicIntFields.lessonCount}} lessons Ferdinand had wanted them to administer the government in his absence. In addition to Habsburg lands, the Holy Roman Empire contained several regional powers, such as the Duchy of Bavaria, the Electorate of Saxony, the Margraviate of Brandenburg, the Electorate of the Palatinate, Landgraviate of Hesse, the Archbishopric of Trier, and the Free Imperial City of Nuremberg. Ferdinand II, educated by the Jesuits, was a staunch Catholic who wanted to impose religious uniformity on his lands. first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. All rights reserved. Religious tensions remained strong throughout the second half of the 16th century. The Thirty Years War was one of the decisive episodes in the history of Western civilization. Ferdinand was upset by this calculated insult, but his intolerant policies in his own lands had left him in a weak position. Summary "One of the most momentous and destructive wars in European history, the Thirty Years War has long been studied for its diplomatic, political, and military consequences. After the Bohemian Revolt was suppressed by Ferdinand II, the Danish king, Christian IV, fearing that recent Catholic successes threatened his sovereignty as a Protestant nation, led troops against Ferdinand. This became known as the first battle in the Thirty Years’ War. Despite the odds being stacked against them, the Swedish army won. The Bohemian Revolt (1618–1620) was an uprising of the Bohemian estates against the rule of the Habsburg dynasty, in particular Emperor Ferdinand II, which triggered the Thirty Years’ War. With Tilly dead, Ferdinand II returned to the aid of Wallenstein and his large army. In 1555, the Peace of Augsburg had settled religious disputes in the Holy Roman Empire by enshrining the principle of Cuius regio, eius religio, allowing a prince to determine the religion of his subjects. An error occurred trying to load this video. Working Scholars® Bringing Tuition-Free College to the Community, Understand the causes of the Thirty Year's War, Identify the primary nations in play during the war, Recall the results of the Peace of Westphalia. Thus, in the following two years, the Catholic powers subjugated more land. The French conquered Arras from the Spanish following a siege that lasted from June 16 to August 9, 1640. Soldiers were to be rewarded for meritorious service. France, though Roman Catholic, was a rival of the Holy Roman Empire and Spain. While the conflict took place mainly in the area of modern day Germany, it involved many of the great European powers at that time. Ferdinand II was a devout Roman Catholic and relatively intolerant when compared to his predecessor, Rudolf II. The new improvements to Sweden’s military order even pervaded the state by fueling fundamental changes in the economy. Tech and Engineering - Questions & Answers, Health and Medicine - Questions & Answers. In the 17th century, religious beliefs and practices were a much larger influence on an average European. The king of Sweden, Gustav Adolph, had been well informed of the war between the Catholics and Protestants in the Holy Roman Empire for some time, but did not get involved because of an ongoing conflict with Poland. Defenestration of Prague: A later woodcut of the Defenestration of Prague in 1618, which triggered the Thirty Years’ War. All other trademarks and copyrights are the property of their respective owners. After the Peace of Prague, the Swedes reorganized the Royal Army under Johan Banér and created a new one, the Army of the Weser, under the command of Alexander Leslie. The effects of the war included the creation of the Peace of Westphalia and a start to remaking the … In this lesson we explore the Thirty Years' War and the subsequent Peace of Westphalia. This period, known as the Thirty Years’ War, began with a religious dispute. Thus, Christian, as war-leader of the Lower Saxon Circle, entered the war with an army of only 20,000 mercenaries, some of his allies from England and Scotland, and a national army 15,000 strong, leading them as Duke of Holstein rather than as King of Denmark. Although the Peace of Augsburg created a temporary end to hostilities, it did not resolve the underlying religious conflict, which was made yet more complex by the spread of Calvinism throughout Germany in the years that followed. Where did the Thirty Years' War take place? Over a four-year period, the warring parties of the Thirty Years’ War (the Holy Roman Empire, France, and Sweden) were actively negotiating at Osnabrück and Münster in Westphalia. Ferdinand received support from Albrecht von Wallenstein, who led troops to defeat Christian IV’s army. They preferred the Protestant Frederick V, Elector of the Palatinate (successor of Frederick IV, the creator of the Protestant Union). The Thirty Years’ War claimed the lives of at least 5 million people – so, yes, its grim reputation is well deserved. In 1609, Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Bohemia (1576–1612), increased Protestant rights. Enrolling in a course lets you earn progress by passing quizzes and exams. Lutheranism was the primary religion of Sweden, and had by then established a firm grip on the country, but it was not solely the result of religious sentiment that Sweden converted. While Sweden was under a truce with Poland, Gustav reformed the Swedish military, leading to an army that became the model for all of Europe. To fight Christian, Ferdinand II employed the military help of Albrecht von Wallenstein, a Bohemian nobleman who had made himself rich from the confiscated estates of his Protestant countrymen. After the Protestant Reformation, these independent states became divided between Catholic and Protestant rulership, giving rise to conflict. Ferdinand II may have feared that Wallenstein would switch sides, and arranged for his arrest after removing him from command. This alarmed the primarily Calvinist population of Bohemia as Ferdinand was an ardent Catholic. General recognition of the exclusive sovereignty of each party over its lands, people, and agents abroad, and responsibility for the warlike acts of any of its citizens or agents. Denmark’s King Christian IV had obtained for his kingdom a level of stability and wealth that was virtually unmatched elsewhere in Europe. After the Swedish rout at Nördlingen in September 1634 and the Peace of Prague in 1635, in which the Protestant German princes sued for peace with the German emperor, Sweden’s ability to continue the war alone appeared doubtful, and Richelieu made the decision to enter into direct war against the Habsburgs. As a result, Sweden landed troops in Pomerania in 1630 and France and Sweden signed an alliance - despite France being a Catholic country - to aid the Protestant German states. Chris has an M.A. Anyone can earn This also contributed to catalyzing the Thirty Years’ War. Did you know… We have over 220 college Gustavus Adolphus knew that Wallenstein was waiting for the attack and was prepared, but found no other option. Another branch of the House of Habsburg ruled over Spain and its empire, which included the Spanish Netherlands, southern Italy, the Philippines, and most of the Americas. asked the tavern drinkers in Goethe’s Faust—and the answer is no easier to find today than in the late 18th, or early 17th, century. The Swedish siege of Prague in 1648: In 1648, the Swedish army entered Prague and captured Prague Castle, where the catalyst of the war, the Defenestration of Prague, had taken place thirty years before. Religion in the Holy Roman Empire, 1618: Religion in the Holy Roman Empire on the eve of the Thirty Years’ War. Immediately after the defenestration, the Protestant estates and Catholic Habsburgs started gathering allies for war. France declared war on Spain in May 1635, and on the Holy Roman Empire in August 1636, opening offensives against the Habsburgs in Germany and the Low Countries. in history and taught university and high school history. The general Hans Christoff von Königsmarck, commanding Sweden’s flying column, entered the city and captured Prague Castle (where the event that triggered the war—the Defenestration of Prague—had taken place thirty years before). Issuance of unrestricted letters of marque and reprisal to privateers was forbidden. flashcard sets, {{courseNav.course.topics.length}} chapters | Services. No longer able to tolerate the encirclement of two major Habsburg powers on its borders, Catholic France entered the Thirty Years’ War on the side of the Protestants to counter the Habsburgs and bring the war to an end. Moravia was already embroiled in a conflict between Catholics and Protestants. This success largely reversed many of the effects of their defeat at Nördlingen, albeit not without creating some tensions between Banér and Leslie. 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General Practice Doctors, Medical Illustrator Education and Training Program Information, Ambulatory Systems Architect Definition Salary, Crm Application Architect Job Description Salary Requirements, The Thirty Years' War & the Peace of Westphalia: Summary & Significance, Absolutism and Constitutionalism in Western Europe (1648-1715), Power Shifts in Eastern Europe (1648-1740), Empire and Expansion in the 18th Century (1700-1799), The Scientific Revolution & the Enlightenment (1500-1790), The French Revolution and Napoleon Bonaparte (1780-1815), Imperialism in the 19th and 20th Centuries, TExES History 7-12 (233): Practice & Study Guide, NY Regents Exam - US History and Government: Test Prep & Practice, Praxis World & U.S. History - Content Knowledge (5941): Practice & Study Guide, High School World History: Help and Review, High School World History: Homework Help Resource, GED Social Studies: Civics & Government, US History, Economics, Geography & World, Comparing and Contrasting Political Ideologies & Movements: Essay Prompts, Mastering the Short Answer Question Section (Section I: Part B), What is a Megaron? France then entered the conflict, beginning the final period of the Thirty Years’ War. The Swedish intervention in the Thirty Years’ War, which took place between 1630 and 1635, was a major turning point of the war, often considered to be an independent conflict. study He was increasingly viewed as unfit to govern, and other members of the Habsburg dynasty declared his younger brother, Matthias, to be family head in 1606. The Thirty Years war was one of the most devastating wars of the early modern periods. This was evident from the Cologne War (1583–1588), in which a conflict ensued when the prince-archbishop of the city, Gebhard Truchsess von Waldburg, converted to Calvinism. After the second defeat of the Puritans, the Lutheran King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden jumped … Soon afterward, the Bohemian conflict spread through all of the Bohemian Crown, including Bohemia, Silesia, Upper and Lower Lusatia, and Moravia. In the Holy Roman Empire, where the Emperor remained a staunch Catholic, members of these sects often had to fight to defend their rights to worship or emigrate to states with princes or monarchs sympathetic to Protestantism. The treaty also stipulated that Sweden would not conclude a peace with the Holy Roman Emperor without first receiving France’s approval. Along with several territorial adjustments, the terms of the Peace of Westphalia included a return to the principles in the Peace of Augsburg of 1555, in which each prince would have the right to determine the religion of his own state. The religious conflict eventually spread across the whole continent of Europe, involving France, Sweden, and a number of other countries. These states employed relatively large mercenary armies, and the war became less about religion and more of a continuation of the France-Habsburg rivalry for European political pre-eminence. Though the Bohemians and their Protestant allies were defeated, fighting began again in 1625 with Denmark's invasion of the Holy Roman Empire on behalf of the Protestant state of Saxony, which the Danish King Christian IV feared might fall to the Catholic states that encircled it. In the face of French and Swedish victories in the north and west, Ferdinand III (who had taken the imperial throne after his father's death in 1637) sought to negotiate an end to the protracted conflict. With another military success for the Catholics, Ferdinand II took back several Protestant holdings and declared the Edict of Restitution in an attempt to restore the religious and territorial situations reached in the Peace of Augsburg. After that, the imperialist and the Protestant German sides met for negotiations, producing the Peace of Prague (1635), which entailed a delay in the enforcement of the Edict of Restitution for forty years and allowed Protestant rulers to retain secularized bishoprics held by them in 1627. The war began when the newly elected Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand II, tried to impose religious uniformity on his domains, forcing Roman Catholicism on its peoples, and the Protestant states banded together to revolt against him. As a result, France entered the war directly, declaring war on the Holy Roman Empire in 1636 and on the other Hapsburg-controlled state, Spain, in 1635. The Swedes and several Protestant Germanic states joined the French in continuing the war. From 1630 to 1634, Swedish-led armies drove the Catholic forces back, regaining much of the lost Protestant territory. France aligned its strategy with the allied Swedes in Wismar (1636) and Hamburg (1638). History of Europe - History of Europe - The Thirty Years’ War: The war originated with dual crises at the continent’s centre: one in the Rhineland and the other in Bohemia, both part of the Holy Roman Empire. This event, known as the Defenestration of Prague, started the Bohemian Revolt. Some 13,700 Scottish soldiers under the command of General Robert Maxwell, 1st Earl of Nithsdale, were sent as allies to help Christian IV. The king-elect then sent two Catholic councillors (Vilem Slavata of Chlum and Jaroslav Borzita of Martinice) as his representatives to Hradčany castle in Prague in May 1618. The Protestant rebellion had been crushed. For the outbreak of the war the deepening crisis of the Holy Roman Empire was of crucial importance. Denmark’s cause was aided by France, which together with Charles I had agreed to help subsidize the war, not the least because Christian was a blood uncle to both the Stuart king and his sister Elizabeth of Bohemia through their mother, Anne of Denmark. Ferdinand was a proponent of the Catholic Counter-Reformation, and not well-disposed to Protestantism or Bohemian freedoms. Enumerated in the Edict of Restitution (1629), these possessions included two archbishoprics, sixteen bishoprics, and hundreds of monasteries. These results left only the imperial territories of Austria safely in Habsburg hands. Not sure what college you want to attend yet? As no satisfactory agreement could be reached between the followers of Catholicism and Protestantism, a feeling of bit­terness continued to persist between them which ultimately culminated in the Thirty Years’ War. There was plundering and pillaging in Prague for weeks following the battle. Initially after the Peace of Prague, the Swedish armies were pushed back by the reinforced imperial army north into Germany. This made him highly unpopular in Protestant Bohemia. When Arras fell, the way was opened for the French to take all of Flanders. The Thirty Years’ War was a series of wars in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648. At the beginning of the 17th century, the Rhine lands and those south to the Danube were largely Catholic, while the north was dominated by Lutherans, and certain other areas, such as west-central Germany, Switzerland, and the Netherlands, were dominated by Calvins. Wallenstein feared losing his northern German gains to a Danish-Swedish alliance, while Christian IV had suffered another defeat in the Battle of Wolgast (1628); both were ready to negotiate. One of Wallenstein’s soldiers, Captain Devereux, killed him when he attempted to contact the Swedes in the town hall of Eger (Cheb) on February 25, 1634. The first edition of The Thirty Years' War offered an unrivalled survey of a central period in European history. The population’s sentiments notwithstanding, the added insult of the nobility’s rejection of Ferdinand, who had been elected Bohemian Crown Prince in 1617, triggered the Thirty Years’ War in 1618, when his representatives were thrown out of a window and seriously injured. Thirty Years’ War, (1618–48), in European history, a series of wars fought by various nations for various reasons, including religious, dynastic, territorial, and commercial rivalries. The Peace of Augsburg (1555), signed by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, ended the war between German Lutherans and Catholics. Sweden received Western Pomerania, Wismar, and the Prince-Bishoprics of Bremen and Verden as hereditary fiefs, thus gaining a seat and vote in the Imperial Diet of the Holy Roman Empire. credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level. After the Defenestration of Prague and the ensuing Bohemian Revolt, the Protestants warred with the Catholic League until the former were firmly defeated at the Battle of Stadtlohn in 1623. Most of the fighting took place in the Holy Roman Empire, although the war grew to include European powers outside of the Empire. The ensuing French campaign against the Spanish forces in Flanders culminated with a decisive French victory at Rocroi in May 1643. Though the conflict was originally instigated to defend the religious freedoms of Calvinists and Protestants in the Holy Roman Empire, European politics soon became a driving force behind the war's main actors. During the campaign, Sweden managed to conquer half of the imperial kingdoms, making it the continental leader of Protestantism until the Swedish Empire ended in 1721. The end of the war was not brought about by one treaty, but instead by a group of treaties, collectively named the Peace of Westphalia. These treaties ended both the Thirty Years’ War (1618–1648) in the Holy Roman Empire and the Eighty Years’ War (1568–1648) between Spain and the Dutch Republic, with Spain formally recognizing the independence of the Dutch Republic. Toward the end his reign, Emperor Matthias, realizing he would die without an heir, arranged for his lands to go to his nearest male relative, the staunchly Catholic Archduke Ferdinand II of Austria. The Thirty Years' Warwas a conflict fought between the years 1618and 1648, principally in the Central Europeanterritory of the Holy Roman Empire, but also involving most of the major continental powers. However, the war reached a climax and the tide of the war turned clearly toward France and against Spain in 1640, starting with the siege and capture of the fort at Arras. To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page. During the sixteenth century, Martin Luther's Protestant Reformation caused Christianity to splinter into numerous sects and subsects. Gustav was concerned about the growing power of the Holy Roman Empire, and like Christian IV before him, was heavily subsidized by Cardinal Richelieu, the chief minister of Louis XIII of France, and by the Dutch. The Thirty Years' War was fought from 1618 until 1648. While this measure stopped the internecine struggle for a time, new issues created new problems. After dismissing Wallenstein in 1630, from fear he was planning a revolt, Ferdinand II became dependent on the Catholic League. Upon Rudolf’s death, Matthias succeeded in the rule of Bohemia. The 30 Years' War, which took place in the first half of the 17th century, is one of the most devastating wars in European history. The Habsburg cause in the next few years would seem to suffer unrecoverable reverses. The two army groups moved south in the spring of 1636, re-establishing alliances on the way, including a revitalized one with Wilhelm of Hesse-Kassel. In some lordships and cities, the numbers of Calvinists, Catholics, and Lutherans were approximately equal. Frederick was forced to sign an armistice with Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II, thus ending the “Palatine Phase” of the Thirty Years’ War. One of the causes of the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648) was the growing religious and political tension between Roman Catholics and Protestant Christians. Describe the events surrounding the Defenestration of Prague. Early French military efforts were met with disaster, and the Spanish counter-attacked, invading French territory. This war served to delay the unification of Germany for two centuries, and would have a profound, and disastrous, effect on the future.The war is believed by most historians to have set the progress of German civilization back 200 years. Sweden did not take part in the Peace of Prague, and it joined with France in continuing the war. Despite early Spanish successes, French and Swedish forces were largely successful in military efforts over the next decade. The Peace of Westphalia established important political precedents for state sovereignty, inter-state diplomacy, and balance of power in Europe. However, other Protestants supported the stance taken by the Catholics, and in 1617 Ferdinand was duly elected by the Bohemian Estates to become the Crown Prince and, automatically upon the death of Matthias, the next King of Bohemia. By the spring of 1635, the Catholic and the Protestant sides met for negotiations, producing the Peace of Prague (1635), which entailed a delay in the enforcement of the Edict of Restitution for forty years. Pragmatically, the Peace achieved several things. The Spanish army was repulsed by Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar. imaginable degree, area of For example, the independence of Switzerland from the empire was formally recognized. 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