Paul knew Apollos personally, and encouraged him in his ministry (1 Cor. Hebrews Its author. 13:22). Martin Luther believed Apollos was the author. Priscilla also did spend a great deal of time with Paul and his companions on their missionary journeys. eccl. No other book so eloquently defines Christ as high priest of Christianity, superior to the Aaronic priesthood, and the fulfillment of the Law and the Prophets. He was a highly educated Alexandrian who would have been schooled in the literary style exemplified by Hebrews. Because the Jewish audience would have had a rich understanding of Old Testament history, the main purpose of Hebrews is to show how Christ fulfilled prophecies set forth in the Old Testament and to prove the sufficiency of Jesus Christ as Savior and Lord. These connections make it very likely that the author was originally from the Alexandrian church, regardless of where he was when he penned the letter, and regardless of to whom it was originally sent. God purposefully withheld the name of the human instrument He used. All rights reserved. Although perhaps Paul had written the book, perhaps someone who had followed him closely in ministry, and heard his sermons and the examples he used compiled this book. T he epistle of Hebrews was written to demonstrate to Jews that as great as the Mosaic Law was, as great as the Temple was, as great as the Levitical sacrifices were, Christ was superior (Hebrews 1.1-3, 4-2.18, 3.1-4.13, 4.14-10.18, 10.19-12.29). and in him all things hold together.”, Hebrews 2:4
Circumcision, a stumbling block for many converts, had been a Jewish practice when a child was weaned, or when a man converted to the Jewish faith. Here the author explains that he is a second generation believer—not an eyewitness of Jesus. Some believe Paul to be the author, who wrote at least thirteen books in the New Testament and others attribute the book to Priscilla, a friend of Paul’s who accompanied him during part of his ministry. Luther himself believed that Paul wrote Hebrews, but also suggested that Apollos could have been the author. Here’s what we know about Apollos from the Bible: After all, the Hall of Faith featured in Hebrews 11 features three women, something a male writer may overlook. Clement? Conjectures as to the author have ranged from the Apostle Paul, who wrote at least thirteen books in the New Testament, to Priscilla, a friend of Paul’s who accompanied him during part of his ministry. Not only was he influenced by Paul, but he was also not a first-generation Christian (Jobes, 40). Origin also recognized that Paul himself probably did not write Hebrews.. One twentieth-century scholar named William Manson suggested that Christians who were of the same mind as Stephen brought the Christian message to Alexandria, noting several elements common to Stephen’s speech in Acts 7 that are also shared by the book of Hebrews. Question: "Who wrote the Book of Hebrews? Copyright © 2020 HarperCollins Publishers. Hope Bolinger is an editor at Crosswalk.com, literary agent at C.Y.L.E., and a graduate of Taylor University's professional writing program. . The Book Of Hebrews Author: Unknown; The East (i.e. he's writing to writes to the Hebrews and gives them instruction about who has rule. particularly Jewish people who had converted, California - Do Not Sell My Personal Information. The Author of Hebrews While the Book of Hebrews does not reveal its author, it is safe to say with “a great deal of certainty that it was a man who belonged to Hellenistic or Greek-speaking Christianity.”9 Besides that, the Book of Hebrews has been attributed to many authors; some think it was Paul or even 4 Priscilla while other people think it was either Apollos or Barnabas. Clement believed Hebrews was written by Paul in the Hebrew language, then translated into Greek by Luke. “All these are the work of one and the same Spirit, and he distributes them to each one, just as he determines.”, Hebrews 2:14( – 17)
It is possible that his name is completely unknown to Christians today. The Book of Hebrews teaches that Jesus was not an angel (a servant of God from heaven) (Hebrews 1). But ultimately, we do not have a conclusive answer to who wrote this book. Yea, he desired to be restored unto them as one that had been with them before. All Rights Reserved. The missionary impetus of the Christian gospel arose in Jerusalem following the stoning of Stephen when a great persecution broke out and Christians began to scatter (Acts 8). Several theories regarding the author’s identity have been proposed over the centuries, but all of them carry significant obstacles. Furthermore, it is doubtful that Timothy had any connection to Alexandria, though that connection may not be necessary. And when Stephen talks to a Jewish audience, he uses examples from the Old Testament (Acts 7). Paul? Whoever the author of Hebrews is had authority with the little flock Here's proof Hebrews thirteen verse number seven, says remember them, which have the rule over the author of Hebrews writes to the people. The most persuasive argument against Pauline authorship. He was the son of Joseph, a construction worker who originally lived in Nazareth in Galilee. P.N. Here the author writes to illustrate what this means to the readers. We can present a few possible authors that scholars have suggested throughout all of church history. “But in fact the ministry Jesus has received is as superior to theirs as the covenant of which he is mediator is superior to the old one, since the new covenant is established on better promises.”, 2 Corinthians 3:6
Jesus is God. Timothy? Fortunately, our ability to apply the powerful message of Hebrews doesn’t depend on our knowledge of the identity of the author. Those who have rejected Pauline authorship are divided as to who did write Hebrews. But we've come to Mt. . Although scholars have not reached a unanimous, or near-unanimous, conclusion about who authored the book of Hebrews, this article will endeavor to explore some of the possible writers who contributed to this book. ), who said, according to Eusebius, “Who wrote the epistle of Hebrews? “Since we have now been justified by his blood”; “offer your bodies as a living sacrifice, holy and pleasing to God.”. . 3.38.2). How did the author of Hebrews affirm the continuing validity of the old covenant for his readers? mentioned that Barnabas, Paul’s traveling companion on his first mission to the Gentiles, authored Hebrews (Pud. Its audience members would have known the original author, a companion of Paul or Paul, and they would have found hope in its truthful words, numerous examples from the Old Testament, and list of heroes of the faith. First, he states that the ancients who were commended, received this commendation because they had true faith. 5. The soteriology of Hebrews is quite consistent with Paul’s own teaching. The notion that Luke or Clement of Rome translated the epistle from Hebrew into Greek is a later development. What we know of Apollos matches more closely what we see in Hebrews than does what we know of Timothy. In the first few centuries, the book was grouped together with Paul’s 13 NT letters. 6:4-6. ... As for Rahab's personal qualities, she not only believed in God but had spiritual discernment to perceive divine leading regarding the Israelite mission. It seems unlikely that Paul here in 2:3 would refer to himself as simply someone who received the gospel from those who had heard the Lord. 3.3.5; 6.20.3). The author of Hebrews believed that he was living in the "last days." Enhance your school’s traditional and online education programs by easily integrating online courses developed from the scholars and textbooks you trust. Find out more about her at her website.  Believing the author to have been Priscilla , Ruth Hoppin posits that the name was omitted either to suppress its female authorship, or to protect the letter itself from suppression. But, as I have said, there was a human author. Luke? The reason for this is that the persecutions described in Acts 8: 1 and Hebrews 10: 32-34 were intense; Jewish Christians outside Palestine suffered relatively less compared to their counterparts in Palestine (Ogden, 1994). The reason why the Council of Nicea had to be called in the first place was because false authors had written under pseudonyms to try and seep ideas of something known as gnosticism in the church. Instructor: 2:3-4). Moreover, both Paul and the author of Hebrews thought of Abraham as the spiritual father of Christians in similar ways. It’s certainly reasonable to conclude Paul wrote the book of Hebrews. Please check errors and resubmit. In any case, the church believed that the contents of the book spoke for themse… The author of Hebrews speaks of the faith of these two women, a faith which enabled these miraculous events to take place. First, although we do not have the list of criteria used at the Council of Nicea, there would have been works that the early church would have deemed “apostolic” or having the authority of an Apostle. It is impossible for fallen-away Christians to be saved. The author was likely a close associate of Paul, The author was able to write in a rhetorically ornate Greek style, The author had become a Christian out of Judaism. Secondly, regardless of who wrote it or spoke it, an unbelieving Jew wanted nothing to do with God’s Word. The author now proves, Hebrews 8:4, that He cannot be a priest in the earthly sanctuary, whence it then follows of itself that He must be so in the heavenly one. Apollos was “mighty in the Scriptures” and he “refuted the Jews in public, demonstrating by the Scriptures that Jesus was the Christ” (Acts 18:24-28). Jesus is our priest (Hebrews chapters 5-9). There is a consensus that the “brother of James” identifies the author... Get expert commentary on biblical languages, fresh explorations in theology, hand-picked book excerpts, author videos, and info on limited-time sales. The apostle Paul, for instance, never alludes to Jesus as a priest, which is the major motif of Hebrews. While many accredit the section to Paul, others give credit to a woman name Priscilla that is mention throughout the New Testament. Today, we can still find hope in these verses written two thousand years ago. But as it doth not appear that this Clement was ever in Palestine, so what reason he should have to leave his own charge now to go thither, no man can imagine. It is believed that the intended readers lived in the region of Palestine. Clement of Alexandria suggests that Paul wrote the book originally in Hebrew and that Luke translated it into Greek, though the Greek of Hebrews bears no resemblance to translation Greek (e.g., that of the Septuagint). So, regarding the author of Hebrews, we’ve seen that he was (1) a man, (2) a second-generation believer (probably not Paul), (3) who may have chosen to remain anonymous to echo the mysterious nature of one of the main characters in his book, Melchizedek. The enormously influential King James Bible took its cue from this tradition. Volumes have been written and theories have been postulated. Finally, does the book speak the truth? it's rather looked down on now, but i still value it. The author knew Timothy and referred to him as “our brother” (Hebrews 13:23, CSB) rather than “my son” as Paul did in (1 Timothy 1:2). If this is the case, she would be the only female author to contribute to Scripture. 3:12. There are a couple reasons why this might be the case. Harnack’s argument that Priscilla deliberately disguised her gender by using the masculine gender is sheer speculation, and his theory remains a curiosity of New Testament scholarship. Let’s take a look at the reasons each of them might be the author. 3.38.2). The author of Hebrews begins by expounding on the preeminence of Christ’s person and shows that because He is the magnificent sovereign of the universe and the ultimate revelation of God, He is inherently greater than the angels, Moses and the priests of the old covenant. It seems very likely that the author was a Jewish Christian. Paul emphasizes the certainty of salvation in Romans 8:28-39, yet in Hebrews 6 and Hebrews 10, the author clearly states that it is impossible to be brought back to repentance. Apostates will burn in hell with the other non-believers. The apostle Paul always made the point that, even though he wasn’t one of the twelve original disciples who walked with Jesus during his earthly life, he was nonetheless an apostle of Jesus Christ, and usually identifies himself as such in his letters. Your form could not be submitted. 20). a. Simon Vibert – Wycliffe Hall, Oxford University (06:40) b. Carol Kaminski – Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary (07:20) c. Dennis E. Johnson – Westminster Seminary California (08:35) d. Sean McDonough – Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary (10:10) 3. However, scholarly examination shows that the Greek text of Hebrews could not be a translation of a Semitic text — at least as we understand “translation” today — because its rhetorical features would be possible only when composed in Greek. The author begins with a reminder of the preexistence, incarnation, and exaltation of Jesus that proclaimed him the climax of God’s word to humanity (Heb 1:1–3). The writer of the book of Hebrews is unknown, but the earliest church fathers taught the book of Hebrews to anyone that would listen. When you consider the wide agreement among biblical scholars about who wrote every other book of the New Testament, it’s a little mysterious that we don’t know who wrote Hebrews. Hebrews says that we have already come to Mt leading many to think that the author may been! Other words, the author of Hebrews believed that Paul was the author someone. S interpretation of Origen should be rejected was grouped together with Paul ’ traditional! 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