Wealthy ruling group who controlled Upper Canada. "[6] Members of the Family Compact utilized their official positions for monetary gain, especially through corporations such as the Bank of Upper Canada, and the two land companies (the Clergy Corporation and the Canada Company) that between them controlled two-sevenths of the land in the province. government. While it shrank, it became more violent, mainly through the support of the Hunters' Lodges, a secret United States-based militia that emerged around the Great Lakes, and launched the Patriot War in 1838–39. Two years later, Upper and Lower Canada were unified. Oligarchy. [35] Mackenzie also printed handbills declaring independence which were distributed to citizens north of Toronto. [77], William Kilbourn stated that the removal of Radicals from Upper Canada politics, either through execution or their retreat to the United States, allowed the Clear Grits to be formed as a more moderate political force that had fewer disagreements with the Tories than the reformers. The rebels fled north and the morale of the rebellion was irreparably broken. The Upper Canada Rebellion was largely defeated shortly after it began, although resistance lingered until 1838. However, the mainstream historical view is that the uprising had limited support and was largely an accident. They obtained supplies from supporters in the United States, resulting in British reprisals (see Caroline affair). Without it, however, the Upper Canadian revolt probably would not In the 1860s, some of the former rebels were compensated by the Canadian government for their lost property in the rebellion aftermath. It had been supplying Mackenzie’s forces and was set adrift over the falls. The records in the 1837 Rebellion Losses of Upper Canada are organized in this document by District. The rebels dispersed in a panic after the first round of firing thinking the rebel's front row had been killed when they were simply dropping to the ground to allow those behind them to fire. Durham was assigned to report on the grievances among the British North American colonists and find a way to appease them. [54], On Tuesday night MacNab arrived in Toronto with sixty men from the Hamilton area. The rebellion of lower Canada ended when upper & lower cananda became one due to the government wanting one country not two halves. Fraser, “’The Waste that Lies Before Me’: The Public and the Private Worlds of Robert Baldwin,”. On 8 January 1838, the Upper Canadian militia and a 50-man Coloured Corps under the command of Black community leader Josiah Henson captured the sailboat Anne. However, many reformers, including Bidwell, fled to the US. Few historians see any necessary political connection with the rebellion in Lower Canada. Why Were There Rebellions In Upper Canada In 1837-38? The Rebellion's of Upper and Lower Canada. The rebels without arms were sent to the tavern with their prisoners. of politicians and officials known as the Family Compact. passed in 1840. They focused on the campaign for responsible government and were thus prepared to unite the two Canadas. A second confrontation took place a few days later near Brantford. [34] Mackenzie printed broadsheets listing grievances and a call to arms to communities surrounding Toronto. Between 5 and 8 December 1837, approximately 1,000 men gathered at Montgomery's Tavern in Toronto. The linkage of the "fight for responsible government" with disloyalty was solidified by the Rebellion of 1837, as reformers took up arms to finally break the "baneful domination" of the mother country. [27], On October 9 1837, a messenger from the Patriotes informed Mackenzie that the rebellion in Lower Canada was going to begin. They suffered a series of crop failures and were subject to harsh debt-collection laws. He proclaimed a republic of Upper Canada. Our team will be reviewing your submission and get back to you with any further questions. In 1834, he became the first mayor of Toronto. Fourteen-year-old Adam Wheeler arrives in Toronto in the autumn of 1837 with his uncle’s family. In Upper Canada alot of them were actually annexationists wanting to become part of the US (you have to remember at this point in history most Upper Canadians were either first or second generation Americans who came there after Lord Simcoe … Still smarting from his mother’s recent death and his father’s and stepmother’s apparent eagerness to be rid of him, Adam must now contend with Uncle Ted’s wild dreams of easy wealth in Upper Canada. There was also popular opposition to land-granting practices. Join the two colonies of Upper Canada and Lower Canada into one colony called the Province of Canada. The Compact dominated the running of the government. He openly assisted the conservatives in winning the election of 1836. more moderate lines. [by whom?] Although initially believing the government's position was untenable he was inspired by a company of men that formed to defend the government. [13], Sir Francis Bond Head was appointed as Lieutenant-Governor and the Reform movement believed he would support their ideas. The impact did not happen immediately as intended though. Mackenzie, Duncombe and other rebel leaders fled with about 200 followers to These grievances breathed life into the nascent  Mackenzie was a Scottish-born politician and newspaper publisher. uprising. [44] When Rolph and Baldwin returned to Bond Head, they were informed that the government's offer had been withdrawn. In Lower Canada it was mostly a call for independence in order to preserve the French way of life and to pursue Canadien financial interests. Fitzgibbon's call to arm a militia was also denied and he refused an armed guard at the Government's House and City Hall. Debt collection laws allowed them to be jailed indefinitely until they paid their loans to merchants. was already moving towards gradual change through its appointment of more reform-minded governors: Sir James Kempt (1828–30), Lord Aylmer (1830–35) the wealthy elite who controlled Lower Canada, mostly made up of English-speaking merchants. Why did the Upper Canada Rebellion start? If the farmer refused to come to court in Toronto, they would automatically forfeit the case and their property subjected to a sheriff's sale. The rebellion itself failed, but its very failure helped pave the way for moderate and careful political change in British North America. The united Province of Canada came into being in 1841. Over 800 people were arrested after the rebellion for being Reform sympathisers. The large number of migrants led American legislators to speculate that bringing Upper Canada into the American fold would be a "mere matter of marching". As a member of the Legislative Assembly, He persuaded his more radical followers to draft a republican constitution for Upper Canada modelled on that of the United States. [26] Farmers organised target practice sessions and forges in the Home District and Simcoe County created weapons for the rebellion. The impact of the Upper Canadian insurgency is equally debatable. [64], News of the intended rebellion had reached London and the surrounding townships by December 7. After the rebellions, Both Papineau and Mckenzie fled to the United States, leaving their follower rebels to face their punishments. Lv 7. [23] Mackenzie's first plan for rebellion involved calling on Sheldon & Dutcher's men to storm the city hall, where the militia's guns were stored. The lower Canadian rebels would have their crops and fields burned. [36], Bond Head did not believe the reports that stated the severity of resources and discontent gathered by the rebels. This led to the introduction of what became known as responsible government. Alternative Title: Rebellions of 1837–38. The Act of Union was [39] Government officials met at the Lieutenant Governor's residence on December 2 to discuss how to stop rumours of a rebellion. [31] Rolph convinced Morrison to support the rebellion but they also told Mackenzie to get confirmation of support from rural communities. The rebellion of upper and lower Canada. Most banks – including the Bank of Upper Canada – suspended payments by July 1837 and successfully obtained government support while ordinary farmers and the poor did not. They formed several fighting units — known as “Coloured Corps” — in Chatham, The Lower Canadian Rebellion of 1837 stems from … The rebellions of 1837–38. The revolt in Lower Canada was the more serious and violent of the two. Farmers organised target practice sessions and forges in the Home District and Sim… In pursuit of this democratic goal, the Chartists eventually staged a similar armed rebellion, the Newport Rising, in Wales in 1839. [37] The mayor of Toronto refused to ring the City Hall bell if a rebellion began because he felt Fitzgibbon was causing unnecessary concern over a possible revolt. As a rare instance of armed insurgency in British North America, the 1837 Rebellion in what is now Ontario allows insight into the thinking and aspirations of early settlers. Scholars for Upper Canada such as Stanely Ryerson a Marxist support the idea that the rebellion was a bourgeoisie democratic revolution. He also urged them to seize control of the government. His report in 1839 differentiated between the rebellions in Upper and Lower Canada. The disapproval of this was strongest among the so-called late Loyalists and their descendants. In their fear and confusion, they turned and ran. [20] Reformers such as Mackenzie and Samuel Lount lost their seats in the Legislature and they alleged that the election was fraudulent. [50] Rolph and Robert Baldwin met the rebel troops at Gallows Hill and stated the government's proposal of full amnesty to the rebels if they dispersed immediately. Relations between the appointed Legislative Council and the elected Legislative Assembly became increasingly strained in the years after the war, over issues of immigration, taxation, banking and land speculation. In recounting the “myths of responsible government”, Romney emphasized that after the ascendancy of Loyalism as the dominant political ideology of Upper Canada any demand for democracy or for responsible government became a challenge to colonial sovereignty. the United States. have happened. After the first rebellion in 1837, normal civil rights were suspended by the application of martial law and Lord Durham was named Governor of all British North America. Reform movement. Political unrest developed in both Upper and Lower Canada soon after the War of 1812. Representative Government. Causes of the Upper Canada Rebellion of 1837 Introduction This paper introduces an important pre-Confederation expression of dissent in Upper Canada that can be little known or understood today. They agreed to send sixty men to the Don Bridge to divert government troops. [68] Mackenzie, Duncombe, Rolph and 200 supporters fled to Navy Island in the Niagara River and declared themselves the Republic of Canada on December 13. See Answer. Causes of the However, its leaders, including William Lyon Mackenzie, were equally serious in their demands. 0 0 1. The more recent trend is to dismiss the rebellions as unnecessary. Instead, they decided to wait for Anthony Van Egmond to lead the rebellion into Toronto. This is particularly true for the rebellion in Upper Canada. Parliament also sent Lord Durham to become Governor-in-Chief of the British North American colonies,[70] so that Arthur reported to Durham. ...Dannicah S. Blk 2.3 Rebellion of 1837 After learning about the rebellion of 1837 and constantly taking notes, I realized the rebellion was not successful in overturning the government but it did unite both Upper and Lower Canada together. Any answers will help, thnx [40] Fitzgibbon warned the men of rebels forging pikes north of the city and he was appointed adjutant general of the militia. [29] Reformers such as Thomas David Morrison opposed this plan and the meeting ended without consensus on what to do next. It recommended that the Canadas be united into one colony. After the War of 1812 the colonial government prevented Americans from swearing allegiance, thereby making them ineligible to obtain land grants. [72] A group of rebels escaped their prison at Fort Henry and travelled to the United States. [49] Meanwhile, Bond Head proposed a negotiating session with rebel leaders to Marshall Spring Bidwell, who declined. [46] As they were approaching Montgomery's Tavern Powell mortally shot Anthony Anderson in the neck and escaped back to Toronto to report to Bond Head. Thanks for contributing to The Canadian Encyclopedia. Most of the militia volunteers disbanded in 1838 and went back to their regular lives. [74], Paul Romney explains this failure of historical imagination as the outcome of an explicit strategy adopted by reformers in the face of charges of disloyalty to Britain in the wake of the Rebellions of 1837. During the 1830s, a third of the bank's board were Legislative or Executive Councillors, and the remainder all magistrates. The government of Upper Canada was run by wealthy landowners known as the Family Compact. [63] The government continued their march and at Montgomery's Tavern a cannon shot into the dining room window. John Charles Dent, writing in 1885, said the rebellion was a reaction from the public of the government mismanagement of the minority ruling elite. [30], The next day Mackenzie convinced John Rolph that a rebellion could be successful and happen without anyone being killed. other  While public grievances had existed for years, it was the rebellion in Lower Canada (present-day Quebec), which started the previous month, that emboldened rebels in Upper Canada to revolt. [62] Bond Head ordered the tavern to be burned down and the rebels arrested. The lower Canadian rebels would have their crops and fields burned. After the rebellions, Both Papineau and McKenzie fled to the United States, leaving their follower rebels to face their punishments. They wanted democratic reform and an end to the rule of a privileged oligarchy. The rebels’ loss of the Anne ended their Terms in this set (11) Family Compact. This made them ineligible for land grants. [19] He appealed to the people's desire to maintain part of the British Empire and a paternalistic attitude of the Crown providing goods for the people. His report eventually led to greater autonomy in the Canadian colonies and the union of Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada in 1840. by Marianne Brandis. [52] A group of twenty-six men led by Samuel Jarvis met the rebels on their march and fired upon them before running away. Mackenzie printed the declaration in his newspaper and toured communities north of Toronto to encourage citizens to make similar declarations. Likewise everything coming into Upper Canada from Britain — including a great many immigrants — did so by sailing up the St. Lawrence first. [8] Despite repeated attempts, the elected Legislature – which had chartered the bank – could not obtain details on the bank's workings. William Lyon Mackenzie was a fiery and vocal critic of the Upper Canadian system in the 1820's and 30's. The Upper Canada Rebellion was an insurrection against the oligarchic government of the British colony of Upper Canada (present-day Ontario) in December 1837. Colonel Allan MacNab, who had just finished leading Upper Canadian militiamen during the Battle of Montgomery's Tavern, was sent to engage Duncombe's uprising. In Lower Canada many French habitants were suffering from famine and the accumulation of huge debts due to poor harvests. Reformist leaders such as Marshall Spring Bidwell, who had been Speaker of the Assembly, The British Reform movement, organized as "Political Unions," had achieved the Great Reform Bill of 1832 which broadened the electoral franchiseand helped eliminate political corruption. [33], In November 1837, in the lead-up to the Political Union's Constitutional Convention, Mackenzie published a satire in the Constitution, a round table discussion by John Locke, Benjamin Franklin, George Washington, Oliver Goldsmith and William Pitt and others. Hamilton, Sandwich (Windsor) and along the border in the Niagara region.). 2010-10-27 23:03:50. Although the Upper and Lower Canadian Rebellions differed, they shared the common goal of establishing a responsible government. [12] The Canadian Alliance Society was reborn as the Constitutional Reform Society in 1836, and led by the more moderate reformer, Dr William W. Baldwin. The 1837 rebellion in Upper Canada was a less violent, more limited than Lower Canada rebellion, although its leaders,William Lyon Mackenzie, was no less serious in their demands for reform, and an end to the rule of a oligarchy. Britain Many of the grievances which underlay the Rebellion involved the provisions of the Constitutional Act of 1791, which had created Upper Canada's political framework. 1 Answer. [47] The rebel leaders met that night to discuss who would become the rebellion's leader after the death of Anderson and Lount's refusal to lead on his own. (See also: Battle of Windmill.) Fitzgibbon was appointed commander of the government's forces. Lord Gosford (1835–38). The causes of the rebellion in Upper Canada are unique and quite different from Lower Canada. These policies favoured recent emigrants from Britain and the Church of England and its supporters over In Upper …show more content… At the end of the rebellion, in search for the causes the British parliament send Lord Durham who plays a significant role in shaping Canada… [44] Mackenzie took both men prisoner but did not search them for weapons as they gave their word that they did not have any. As part of this satire, he published a draft republican constitution for the State of Upper Canada that closely resembled the objectives in the constitution of the Canadian Alliance Society in 1834. In Upper Canada the 1836 elections had been marred by political violence and fraud organized by the new Lt. Buckner, P., Rebellion in Upper Canada (2019). [4], The Family Compact dominated the government of Upper Canada and the financial and religious institutions associated with it. 9 years ago. During 1838, the rebels continued to send expeditions across the border. In spite this perversion of history, growing poverty and injustices did induce a movement of resistance which began to take the form of republican “patriot movements” under the leadership of William Lyon Mackenzie in Upper Canada and Louis-Joseph Papineau in Lower Canada- both of whom would come to a head in the Rebellions of 1837-38 (aka: the second missed chance). [57] The rebels raided a mail coach, stole the passenger's money and looked for information about the progress of the rebellion in London, Ontario. Bond Head then refused to pass any legislation from that government session including major public works projects. As a result, the rebels would either have a death penalty or be transported to Bermuda/ Australia for 7 years. This became the organizational structure for the Rebellion and most of the rebel organizers were elected Constitutional Convention delegates. Lount encouraged some riflemen to return fire before realising that the enemy had left the battlefield. Rebellions of 1837, also known as Rebellions of 1837–38, rebellions mounted in 1837–38 in each colony of Upper and Lower Canada against the British Crown and the political status quo. Prescott in November and at Windsor in early December. the colony and used political office and influence to further their own business interests. It was decided that Mackenzie would become the leader. Signing up enhances your TCE experience with the ability to save items to your personal reading list, and access the interactive map. The meeting created the Committee of Vigilance and signed a declaration urging every community to send delegates to a congress in Toronto and discuss remedies for their concerns. The loyalist forces included 120 Black soldiers under the command of Colonel Samuel Jarvis. Governor, ... which had been concentrated in Lower Canada to deal with the crisis. and  In 1837, however, Mackenzie was emboldened by the insurgency in Lower Canada and the transfer of all British troops there from Upper Canada. [73] A general pardon for everyone but Mackenzie was issued in 1845, and Mackenzie himself was pardoned in 1849 and allowed to return to Canada, where he resumed his political career. [78], 1837 populist rebellion against the government of Upper Canada, Francis Bond Head and the elections of 1836, Collapse of the international financial system, Consequences: execution or transportation, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFSewell2002 (, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFDent1885 (, Report on the Affairs of British North America, Archibald Macdonald (Canadian politician), "Closing the Last Chapter of the Atlantic Revolution: The 1837–38 Rebellions in Upper and Lower Canada", Lambton, John George, 1st Earl of Durham, in the, "William Lyon Mackenzie: the persistent hero", "MHS Transactions: Rebellion in Upper Canada, 1837", "Closing the Last Chapter of the Atlantic Revolution: The 1837-38 Rebellions in Upper and Lower Canada,", "The story of the Upper Canadian rebellion, Proceedings of the Legislative Council of Upper Canada on the bill sent up from the House of Assembly, entitled, An act to amend the jury laws of this province, The Rebellion of 1837 in Upper Canada: A collection of documents, Canadian state trials – Rebellion and invasion in the Canadas, 1837–1839, World Wars and Interwar Years (1914–1945), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Upper_Canada_Rebellion&oldid=997754061, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2020, Articles with dead external links from February 2018, Articles with permanently dead external links, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, "Rebellion in Upper Canada, 1837" by J. Edgar Rea, Dunning, Tom. This was able to take away any differences of the two cultures, English and French. Amid these tensions, there was also economic depression in the 1830s. This contributed to economic hardship and increased unemployment throughout the province. "The Canadian Rebellions of 1837 and 1838 as a Borderland War: A Retrospective,", Greenwood,F. Upper Canada, later known as Canada West then Ontario in 1867, was originally organized in Districts. [9], The government of Upper Canada feared a growing interest in American-inspired republicanism in the province because of the increase in immigration of American settlers to the province. The new Tory-dominated Legislature passed laws that exacerbated tensions including continuing the Legislative session after the death of the King, prohibiting members of the Legislature from serving as Executive Councillors, making it easier to sue indebted farmers, protecting the Bank of Upper Canada from bankruptcy, and giving Legislative Councillors charters for their own banks. Favorite Answer. the Durham Report. Mackenzie ignored the letter and continued his plan for rebellion. [50] Instead, Mackenzie spent the day burning down the house of Bank of Upper Canada official and questioning the loyalty of his troops. The rebels from Toronto travelled to the United States in groups of two. The Fenian Raids happened while Canada was slowly moving towards Confederation. Top Answer. [16] The Reform-dominated Assembly responded by refusing to pass the money bill, which halted the payment of salaries and pensions to many government workers. The Upper Canadian Rebellion was an unsuccessful uprising in Upper Canada against the Family Compact. He was wounded in an ensuing battle and taken to the tavern, where he died several hours later in severe pain. [citation needed], The Reformers were incensed at the debt that the Family Compact incurred as the results of general improvements to the province, such as the Welland Canal. It undermined the influence of the extremists in Upper Canada. With the help of American volunteers, the various rebel groups launched raids against Upper Canada. Chateau Clique. It was initially thought that the Toronto rebellion was successful, contributing to Charles Duncombe wanting to rise up as well. He left Hamilton, Ontario on December 12 and arrived in Brantford on December 13. In, Buckner, Phillip A. , "Rebellion in Upper Canada". Mackenzie disagreed and wanted to attack the government troops. [14] After meeting with Reformers, Bond Head concluded that they were disloyal to the British Empire and allied himself with the Family Compact. They mounted major raids at Pelee Island in Lake Erie in February, at Short Hills in June, at  just upriver from the falls. [73] Other rebels were also sentenced to hang and ninety-two men were sent to Van Diemen's Land. There is continuing debate about who was responsible for the rebellion and the degree of popular support it enjoyed. incursions in the southwest. Although many rebels, including Duncombe, had fled prior to the upcoming battle due to hearing about the failure of Mackenzie in Toronto and general disorganization, there were still some present in Scotland, Ontario and MacNab commenced his attack on Scotland on December 14, causing the remaining rebels to flee after only a few shots were fired. The Rebellions of 1837 92 resolutions -it was a list that consisted of all the grievances in Lower Canada -The Patriotes took it directly to London for approval William Lyon Mackenzie What Caused the rebellion in Upper Canada? In November 1837, James Fitzgibbon was concerned about soldiers leaving Upper Canada going to quell the Lower Canada Rebellion and urged Bond Head to keep some troops for protection, which was refused. [62], The government forces also split into two companies when the rebels fired upon them. There are immediate causes and long term factors that influenced the uprising of these rebellions. Political Corruption was the main cause of both Rebellions, in lower Canada it was due to the Colonial administration favouring English colonists and ignoring the needs of the French colonists. Sir Francis Bond Head and the rash behaviour of William Lyon Mackenzie. On 5 December, a motley assortment of 500 to 700 rebels bearing only hunting rifles, staves and pitchforks, marched south on Yonge Street. At this point only 200 men at Montgomery's Tavern were armed. His temperament and conviction led him to the point where he not only advocated armed rebellion against the colonial government but led it. In total, three men — two rebels and one loyalist — lost their lives. The Early American Republic and the 1837–38 Canadian Rebellions. In the 1820s, settlers of American origin were also denied political rights, including the choice to swear allegiance to the Crown. Many people in Upper Canada agreed with the Lower Canadian rebels about the need for change in the government. [56], On Wednesday morning Peter Matthews arrived at the tavern with sixty men, but Mackenzie could still not convince the rebel forces to march towards Toronto. The news of chaos in Lower Canada reached the people of Upper Canada in October of 1837. 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