In particular, we address the question of a Rivera-Cocos boundary.There have been several large historic earthquakes in the coastal areas of the Mexican states Colima and Jalisco, but the last large event was in June 1932 (the 1932 Jalisco earthquake, M s = 8.1). Event II, the largest aftershock on 1932 June 18, caused additional damage, especially in the hinterland locations of Colima and Guadalajara. According to Mexico’s National Seismological Service, three of those happened within a nerve-wracking nine-month span in 1902-1903. Historical earthquake in Mexico. Note that the fault length is in good agreement with the extent of the well-located aftershocks plotted on Fig. Classical examples would include the 1929 Grand Banks, Newfoundland and 1934 Luzon events, for which the existence of the landslides was documented during the repair of telegraphic cables severed by the events (Repetti 1934; Heezen & Ewing 1952). 9 for Model 22.2, featuring a steeper fault dip. We conduct a detailed seismological study of the large Colima, Mexico earthquake of 1932 June 3 and of its aftershocks of June 18 and 22. All our results then fit the model for ‘tsunami earthquake’ aftershocks proposed for the Kuril Islands by Fukao in 1979. (1928). 1932-06-03 10:36:56 UTC at 10:36 June 03, 1932 UTC Location: Epicenter at 19.786, -103.784 11.2 km from Las Primaveras [Invernadero] (7.2 miles) Michoacan, Mexico. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide, This PDF is available to Subscribers Only. The time steps are adjusted for each grid, down to t= 1 σ for the finest one, to satisfy the stability condition of Courant et al. You could not be signed in. Hornbach M. In Model 22.1, we consider the case of a regular earthquake, obeying scaling laws, but simply located up-dip from the main shock. For each available surface wave, we compute spectral amplitudes at mantle periods (50 ≤ T ≤ 250 s), which we interpret as mantle magnitudes Mm in the formalism of Okal & Talandier (1989). None of the relocations could resolve hypocentral depth. What makes the event truly remarkable is the occurrence, 19 d later, of an aftershock that generated an even more devastating tsunami, despite a clearly smaller conve… As shown on Fig. Borrero J.C. 2011), the recent Mentawai disaster (700 killed) illustrates the shortcomings of a natural warning relying only on shaking ‘intensity’, the challenges of educating populations to the perception of shaking ‘duration’ remaining of course formidable (Fritz et al. She uses her Christian name ‘Carmen’ and her husband’s surname as an ironic po… The simulation uses the Method of Splitting Tsunamis (MOST) code (Titov & Synolakis 1998) that solves the full non-linear equations of hydrodynamics under the shallow-water approximation by finite differences and through the method of alternate steps (Godunov 1959). Rodríguez M. Synolakis C.E. Relocation based on published arrival times … (a) and (b) Same as Fig. Although the boundary between the Rivera and Cocos plates is uncertain, there is little doubt that the 1932 earthquakes broke the shallow part of the Rivera subduction zone. Same as Fig. The vertical static displacement from the earthquake grows to a maximum of 3.2 m (Fig. A detailed seismological study of the 1932 sequence in Manzanillo and in particular of Events I, II and III, confirms that the latter occurred up-dip of the main shock and that it featured source slowness resulting in a growth of moment with period and in a deficiency of high frequencies in its source spectrum. It seems that the 1995 event is not a repeat of either June 3 or June 18, 1932 earthquakes. Search for other works by this author on: We use these geometries to compute focal mechanism corrections to our, Radiation of seismic surface waves from finite moving sources, Rigidity variations with depth along interplate megathrust faults in subduction zones, Teleseismic estimates of the energy radiated by shallow earthquakes, Über die partiellen Differenzengleichungen der mathematischen Physik, Source parameters of large historical (1917-1961) earthquakes, North Island, New Zealand, An extension to short distances of real-time estimators of seismic sources, Seismicity and tectonics of the Rivera Plate and implications for the 1932 Jalisco, Mexico, earthquake, International Earthquake and Engineering Seismology Part A, Seismic moments of large Mexican subduction earthquakes since 1907, Reconnaissance of the 25 October 2010 Mentawai Islands tsunami in Indonesia, Tsunami earthquakes and subduction processes near deep-sea trenches, Scaling relations for earthquake source parameters and magnitudes, Finite difference methods for numerical computations of discontinuous solutions of the equations of fluid dynamics, Seismology microfiche publications from the Caltech archives, Seismicity of the Earth and Associated Phenomena, Turbidity currents and submarine slumps, and the 1929 Grand Banks earthquake, Synthesis of long-period surface waves and its application to earthquake source studies - Kuril Islands earthquake of October 13, 1963, Anomalous earthquake ruptures at shallow depths on subduction zone megathrusts, The Seismogenic Zone of Subduction Thrust Faults, A seismological reassessment of the source of the 1946 Aleutian “tsunami” earthquake, The displacement fields of inclined faults, Teleseismic estimates of radiated seismic energy: the, The 25 October 2010 Mentawai tsunami earthquake, from real-time discriminants, fault rupture, and tsunami excitation, Seismic parameters controlling far-field tsunami amplitudes: a review, Energy-to-moment ratios for damaging intraslab earthquaes: preliminary results on a few case studies, The mechanism of the great Banda Sea earthquake of 01 February 1938: applying the method of preliminary determination of focal mechanism to a historical event, Theoretical comparison of tsunamis from dislocations and landslides, Source discriminants for near-field tsunamis, Split mode evidence for no ultra-slow component to the source of the 2010 Maule, Chile earthquake, Shallow subduction zone earthquakes and their tsunamigenic potential, The Rivera plate: a study in seismology and tectonics, The China Sea earthquake of February 14th, 1934, Seismological Bulletin for 1934 January-June, Dept. 1). 161 people were killed in the 1932 Ierissos earthquake. (1985) used a combination of differential S-P and L-P travel times and of first motion polarities at the local station MNZ and the regional stations GUM and TAC (Tacubaya), in support of Eissler & McNally′s (1984) solution. This is confirmed by a deficient energy-to-moment ratio, as derived from high-frequency P waves recorded at Pasadena. A third earthquake of 3.0 magnitude occurred in the area at 11:16 a.m. On March 27, four more quakes, including one measured at 3.7 magnitude, occurred in the same area. All bathymetry grids are derived from the GEBCO 0.5-min global data set, the finer ones being simply interpolated from the coarser grid. Havskov J. Fritz H.M. In the case of Event III, the strong slope, reaching outside of the confidence interval, expresses the intrinsic slowness of the source. In summary, Model 03.1 best describes the effects of the tsunami on Manzanillo and its vicinity. This variability in delay before the ‘tsunami earthquake’ expresses the non-linear nature of the stress transfer outside of the rupturing area of the main shock. 6(a) and a close-up of the wave heights in Manzanillo and its vicinity on Fig. Wei Y. In this section, we simulate the regional tsunamis generated by Events I, II and III based on models of their ruptures derived from the waveform studies of Section 4. The inscription reads, ‘Carmen Rivera Painted Her Portrait 1932’. Fig. We note that both GR′s and EV′s locations fall within our Monte Carlo confidence ellipse. Although this model shows a marginal increase in wave heights, it still cannot account for the devastating nature of the tsunami. We were able to gather on-scale records of the generalized P waves from all three events on the east-west Wood-Anderson seismometer at Pasadena (Fig. Although its location on the interplate contact would be generally similar to that of the 2010 Mentawai, Sumatra ‘tsunami earthquake’ (Newman et al. Although this model produces larger waves than 22.1 and 22.2, they remain smaller than reported. MOST has been extensively validated through comparisons with laboratory and field data, per standard international protocols; full details can be found in Synolakis (2003). Kisslinger C. Espíndola J.M. Finally, note that even the maximum run-up reported (but not scientifically surveyed), namely 10 m (Sánchez & Farreras 1993), remains less than twice the modelled slip on the fault (Δu= 6.5 m) under Model 22.4, which satisfies the ‘Plafker rule of thumb’ (Okal & Synolakis 2004) and confirms that the tsunami can be explained satisfactorily without the need of an ancillary source such as an underwater landslide. In general, two tectonic contexts have been proposed for the occurrence of ‘tsunami earthquakes’. Introduction The great Colima-Jalisco, Mexico earthquake … (a) Field of vertical displacement of the ocean floor, computed using Mansinha & Smylie′s (1971) algorithm. Sweet S. Finally, Engdahl & Villaseñor (2002; hereafter EV) relocated the event as part of their Centennial Catalogue, their solution shown on Fig. The slow character of a seismic source, such as a ‘tsunami earthquake’, can also be assessed by comparing the high- and low-frequency parts of its source spectrum. However, the Friday earthquake matched the force of a magnitude 8.1 quake that hit the country on June 3, 1932, roughly 300 miles west of Mexico City. In the case of most aftershocks, we used a constrained depth of 25 km, as suggested in the scenario of a large interplate thrust event. Historically, several significant earthquakes have occurred along the southern coast of Mexico. The locked zone at this plate interface ruptured in two stages in June 1932. For events in the 1930s, we give this noise a standard deviation σG= 5 s. Results are given in Table 1. We show on Fig. Note that Event III is systematically offset about 50 km to the SSW of Event I. With a published moment of 1.6 × 10 28 dyn cm (), the great Colima-Jalisco earthquake of 1932 June 3 was one of the largest to strike Mexico since the dawn of instrumental seismology.It resulted in considerable destruction in the city of Manzanillo and generated a … Events triggering landslides are generally not considered ‘tsunami earthquakes’ as their sources do not exhibit seismically anomalous behaviour. Pacheco J. A Ms = 8.2 earthquake on 3 June and its aftershocks of 18 June (Ms = 7.8) were followed by another large (Ms = 6.9) aftershock on 22 June (1991), which includes a Monte Carlo algorithm injecting Gaussian noise into the data set. Five of those were assigned magnitudes MPAS ≥ 6 by GR. Borrero J.C. In 1932, Mexico was hit by the Jalisco earthquake with a magnitude of 8.1. Modern relocations show Event III 48 km from Event I in the azimuth N207°E (EV) or 52 km in the azimuth N219°E (this study). A gap of about 60 km remains between the aftershock areas of the 1932 Jalisco and the 1973 Colima earthquakes whose seismic potential is unknown. Link to Wikipedia biography Although Talandier & Okal (1989) further identified the Tonga earthquake of 1982 December 19 as a ‘tsunami earthquake’, it was not until the decade of the 1990s that interest in this matter was revived due to the occurrence of three events, in Nicaragua (1992 September 02), Java (1994 June 02) and Chimbote, Peru (1996 February 21). Compared to other countries, Tsunamis therefore occur more often than average, but still moderate. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America ; 75 (5): 1301–1313. The common scale allows for direct comparison of the three events, clearly exposing Event III′s deficiency in high frequencies. However, a mechanism similar to those used for Events I and II would not modify our main conclusion, namely that Event III features source slowness. We conduct a detailed seismological study of the large Colima, Mexico earthquake of 1932 June 3 and of its aftershocks of June 18 and 22. Historical newspaper articles were compiled and translated in 2005 by Rachel Ryskin as part of an internship at Northwestern University. We conclude that Fukao′s (1979) model involving rupture along a splay fault satisfactorily explains the available data. For each event, the estimated energy EE is plotted against the seismic moment M0 in logarithmic units. Simulation of Event I′s tsunami under Model 03.1. Kanamori′s (1972) original paper was based on two events: the 1896 Sanriku earthquake and the 1946 Aleutian one. By contrast, in a second scenario, originally described by Tanioka et al. EMSC (European Mediterranean Seismological Centre) provides real time earthquake information for seismic events with magnitude larger than 5 in the European … Tsunamis in Mexico In a total of 24 tidal waves classified as a tsunami since 1732 a total of 91 people died in Mexico. By contrast, Event III, on 1932 June 22, that GR assessed at only MPAS= 6.9, generated a catastrophic tsunami that wiped out a 25 km stretch of coastline and in particular, destroyed the resort city of Cuyutlán, killing at least 75 people. Note the different scale of the palette in (b). For Event III, we assume a steeper dip, representative of faulting along a splay fault in the accretionary wedge that will be our preferred model. Unfortunately, the resulting data sets are insufficient to allow a formal inversion, for example, using the Preliminary Determination of Focal Mechanism (PDFM) algorithm (Okal & Reymond 2003). 7 shows that the simulated tsunami amplitude falls to 1.5 m in Manzanillo, substantially lower than observed. 2011), we keep a conventional rigidity for this model. With a published moment of 1.6 × 1028 dyn cm (Okal 1992), the great Colima-Jalisco earthquake of 1932 June 3 was one of the largest to strike Mexico since the dawn of instrumental seismology. Pranantyo I.R. The 1932 Changma earthquake occurred at 10:04:27 local time on 25 December. Bardet J.-P. Reyes G. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. World earthquake list. As expected, the combination of a smaller source and an inland epicentre (as confirmed by significant destruction in the hinterland) results in a much smaller tsunami with simulated amplitudes around Manzanillo of 1-1.5 m (Fig. Emile A. Okal, José C. Borrero, The ‘tsunami earthquake’ of 1932 June 22 in Manzanillo, Mexico: seismological study and tsunami simulations, Geophysical Journal International, Volume 187, Issue 3, December 2011, Pages 1443–1459, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-246X.2011.05199.x. The scale of the palette is common with Fig. Taylor F.W. Villaseñor A. Seismic records used in this study. Mikumo T. Obviously and unfortunately, the time delay in question would also be the most valuable parameter from a societal standpoint. In particular, the catastrophic Event III tsunami can be modelled using the seismically anomalous source derived in Section 4, without the need to invoke a different mechanism such as an underwater landslide. Silver E.A. 1993). Scenario 22.3 is inspired by Lay & Bilek′s (2007) model of a variable, generally deficient, rigidity along the uppermost part of the subduction interplate. Summary of energy-to-moment ratios for a data set of large recent earthquakes (adapted from Newman & Okal 1998; López & Okal 2006; Okal et al. The detailed contributions of these previous studies will be described in the relevant sections later. In this respect, it is most reminiscent of the sequences of 1963 October and 1973-1975, both in the Kuril Islands. What makes the event truly remarkable is the occurrence, 19 d later, of an aftershock that generated an even more devastating tsunami, despite a clearly smaller conventional magnitude and seismic moment. In turn, such events can be treacherous for the local populations who feel them at most as weak tremors and are thus deprived of a natural warning for the impending tsunami. An end-member to this series could be the 1896 Meiji Sanriku earthquake, for which Tanioka & Satake (1996) have argued that the rupture propagated coseismically into the accretionary wedge, with essentially no delay between the two events. Convers J. Singh S.K. We are grateful to Ota Kulhánek, James Dewey, Brian Mitchell and Bernard Dost for access to historical seismograms. (b) Field of maximum wave heights during a 2-hr time window after origin time. In this respect, the specific hazard inherent in those anomalous events that are treacherous because they do not carry the natural warning of an impending tsunami in the form of intense shaking, should be emphasized globally as part of tsunami education programs. These records were digitized at a sampling rate t= 0.1 σ and processed through the standard algorithm for the computation of T. A correction is introduced to take into account the use of a single horizontal component. The diagonal lines feature constant T, the solid one being the theoretical value (-4.90) expected from scaling laws. The 1998 tsunami in Papua New Guinea is also generally described as resulting from a landslide triggered by the seismic event with a delay of 13 min (Synolakis et al. 1981; Wang et al. There is generally more scatter among the published solutions, but once again our confidence ellipse includes EV′s solution and grazes GR′s. For each event, our relocated epicentre is shown as the large star (surrounded by its Monte Carlo confidence ellipse), the ISS location as the inverted triangle, GR′s estimate as the upward triangle, EV′s relocation as the circle and in the case of Event I, Eissler & McNally′s (1984) estimate as the square. However, we emphasize the trend, common to all solutions, in the relative locations of Events III and I. As shown on Fig. 3, M0 increases regularly and steeply with period on all three available records, gaining close to a factor of 10 between 80 and 200 s. Our empirical regression features a slope of -13.7 logarithmic units per mHz, 2.5 times steeper than for Event I, and clearly shows that the data set transgresses its 2s band. People in southern Mexico woke up when the earth was shaking violently, to find rubble, buildings damaged and without electricity, as a result of the 8.2 magnitude earthquake, which struck at … Its run-up was reported to have reached 10 m (Sánchez & Farreras 1993), making it clearly larger than that of the main shock and thus qualifying Event III as a ‘tsunami earthquake’. The 1932 Jalisco earthquakes began on June 3 at 10:36 UTC with a megathrust event that registered 8.2 on the moment magnitude scale.With a maximum perceived intensity of X (Extreme) on the Mercalli intensity scale, at least 400 deaths were caused in Mexico and neighboring Guatemala.It was the first of a series of seismic events that affected parts of western Mexico … This scenario, which requires a sedimentary input into the subduction zone, could apply to the 2010 Mentawai aftershock of the 2007 Bengkulu earthquake (Newman et al. Please click on the PDF icon to access. All these figures are substantially lower than ours, and expectedly so, because the authors worked at higher frequencies, which for this size of source are systematically affected by the destructive interference due to source finiteness (Ben-Menahem 1961; Geller 1976). Also, Fig. 2004). It shares the focal geometry of Model 22.1, but features a lower rigidity, and hence an enhanced slip, with a slightly elongated more ‘ribbon-like’ fault geometry. Agriculture & Commerce, Catâlogo de tsunamis (Maremotos) en la Costa Occidental de Mexico [Catalog of tsunamis on the Western coast of Mexico], World Data Center A Pub. Dixon T. Under the circumstances, we assume for Events I and II a mechanism (ϕ= 310°; δ = 14°; λ= 90°) expressing pure subduction along the local plate boundary; this mechanism is also very close to that of the nearby Colima earthquake of 2003 January 22 (ϕ = 308°; δ= 12°; λ = 110°). Bilek S.L. This estimate is half the 280 km proposed by Singh et al. Qiang Q. Fig. Previous determinations of Event I′s moment include Espíndola ′s (1981) comparative study of surface waves at Uppsala in the 40-70 σ range (1.0 × 1028 dyn cm), Wang ′s (1982) analysis of 50-s surface waves at three European stations (0.9 × 1028 dyn cm) and Singh ′s (1984) body wave modelling at Uppsala and Stuttgart (0.3 × 1028 dyn cm). Tanioka & Satake (1996) have suggested that it may also apply to the 1896 Sanriku event, where the faulting would have deviated into the wedge at the end of the rupture. (1984). Billy D. Yagi Y. Singh S.K. Large-scale induced polarization imaging, The interaction between mantle plumes and lithosphere and its surface expressions: 3-D numerical modelling, Middle–Late Permian magnetostratigraphy and the onset of the Illawarra Reversals in the northeastern Parana Basin, South America, Double-difference seismic attenuation tomography method and its application to The Geysers geothermal field, California, PRISM3D – A three-dimensional reference seismic model for Iberia and adjacent areas, Volume 225, Issue 1, April 2021 (In Progress), Volume 224, Issue 3, March 2021 (In Progress), Geomagnetism, Rock Magnetism and Palaeomagnetism, Marine Geosciences and Applied Geophysics, 2 Historical reports and previous studies, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-246X.2011.05199.x, Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic, Copyright © 2021 The Royal Astronomical Society. Among their conclusions, Singh et al. 2011). Hayes G. 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Common epicentre with Event I Table 2 lists all the records used in respect... Possible tsunamis April 9, 1932 a 2-hr time window after origin time common to all solutions, agreement... Our, Copyright © 2021 Seismological Society of America Ota Kulhánek, Dewey! ) are typical of recent tsunami earthquakes ’ as their sources do not currently have access this! Would predict a smaller, rather than larger, tsunami than for Event I rounded...

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